In Poland political parties are bidding which one of them can promise the most on the eve of the elections. Meanwhile, in the Belarusian presidential campaign Alexander Lukashenka is distancing himself from populism.
The history of Belarus applying to join the World Trade Organisation (WTO) is a story of unfulfilled promises to liberalise and privatise the economy. For many countries aspiration to become the WTO member often served as a motivation and explanation for introducing bold economic reforms. But not for the Belarusian authorities who have preferred to imitate engagement in the accession process.
The decline in oil price and economic sanctions deepened the slowdown in Russia’s GDP lasting from 2011. Due to the lack of internal and external growth drivers, this time Russia is unlikely to return to a high-growth path over the next few years.